Chapter 7 Sunken Billions

This chapter charts the services provided by the oceans in the form of marine fish stocks.

Page 186. On the beneficial impacts of nutrient upwelling on fish stock productivity, see for example:

Page 189. I mention research suggesting that the offspring of women who eat fish during pregnancy have on average a higher IQ than those who don’t. Some details can be found here:

Page 189. On the economic value of fish and fishing to the global economy, I cite a figure of US$274 billion. This number originates from: World Bank (2009) The Sunken Billions. The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform: Examples of Economic Studies on Specific Fisheries. Washington. The report can be found on-line at:,,contentMDK:21930578~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336682,00.html

Pages 189-190. For an estimate on the number of people employed in different parts of the value chains that start with wild-caught fish, see: World Bank (2010) The hidden harvests: the global contribution of capture fisheries. Washington. This can be accessed on-line at:

Page 190. For an estimate on the number of people dependent on wild fish protein, see: FAO (2010). The State of world fisheries and aquaculture 2010. Rome, Italy. This can be located at:

Pages 196-197. For a detailed study on the relationships between sea otters, urchins and kelp forests, this paper is worth looking at: Estes, J. and Duggins, DO. (1995) Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs, 65(1), 75-100. This paper may be found on-line at:

Page 197. If you visit Tenerife and wish to find out more about Ocean Dreams Factory and their efforts to control urchin numbers, please have a look at:

Page 198. For an account on the historical abundance, and subsequent decline of cod (including on the collapse of the stocks around the Grand Banks off Newfoundland), an excellent source is: Kurlansky, M. (1997). Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. Walker. ISBN 0-8027-1326-2

Pages 198-199. For a summary on the state of global fish stocks, including the proportion of stocks that are being exploited beyond their sustainable yield, see: Foresight, (2011). The future of food and farming: Challenges and choices for global sustainability. London. The Government Office for Science. The summary of this report can be found on line at:

Page 200. I mention the World Bank report called Sunken Billions in relation to the estimated US$50 billion additional value that could be gained through better management of marine fisheries. The full citation is above, see Page 189.

Pages 200-202. I mention a number of examples of where fisheries have been improved in ways whereby the costs of conservation reforms are a small proportion of the additional profits and value subsequently gained. More details on these and many other cases of positive progress can be found in: Tyndall, C. (2012). Fisheries in Transition: 50 Interviews with the Fishing Sector. Report commissioned by The Prince’s Charities’ International Sustainability Unit. This report can be accessed on-line at:

Page 202. For a summary on the scale and types of fishing subsidies allocated by governments, see: Sumaila, R. and Pauly, D. (2006). Catching More Bait: A Bottom- up re-restimation of Global Fisheries Subsidies. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada. This report can be found on-line at:

Page 201. The figure pertaining to the extra potential future value of a recovered North Atlantic Bluefin tuna fishery originates from research commissioned by the International Sustainability Unit and found in: International Sustainability Unit (2012).Towards global sustainable fisheries: the opportunity for transition. International Sustainabilty Unit, London.

Page 202. For more on the work of the International Sustainable Seafood Foundation on the sustainable management of tuna, see their website for more on the various aspects of what they are doing: or

Page 203. A few more details on the sale of the tuna that broke all previous record can be found in this BBC News story: